It's a fascinating book, on many levels (and I say that as someone who has no interest in tennis).
I'm always particularly interested when something sheds light on habits or happiness, and as I read the book, several observations stuck out at me.
First, Andre Agassi is an Obliger.
The framework helps to explain why people can make or break habits--or not. People fall into four categories, which describe how people tend to respond to expectations: outer expectations (a deadline, a “request” from a sweetheart) and inner expectations (write a novel in your free time, keep a New Year’s resolution).
Your response to expectations may sound slightly obscure, but it turns out to be very, very important.
In a nutshell:
- Upholders respond readily to outer and inner expectations (I’m an Upholder, 100%)
- Questioners question all expectations; they’ll meet an expectation if they think it makes sense (my husband is a Questioner)
- Rebels resist all expectations, outer and inner alike
- Obligers meet outer expectations, but struggle to meet expectations they impose on themselves
Agassi is a classic Obliger. He's able to meet others' expectations (his father's demand that he excel at tennis, his girlfriend Brooke Shields's desire to get engaged) but struggles to meet his own expectations for himself.
He also demonstrates "Obliger rebellion," a striking pattern in which Obligers abruptly refuse to meet an expectation, or when they rebel in symbolic ways (Agassi rebels with his hair and clothes).
If you want insight into the Obliger perspective, this book is an outstanding resource. Agassi shows the tremendous energy and accomplishment that Obligers can bring to bear, and also the anger and resentment that can arise from Obligers' feeling that they're working towards others' expectations.
For you Obligers out there, who have read the book, did it strike a chord with you? Did you identify?
(If you’d like to see me discuss each category in a video, look here: Upholders, here; Questioners, here; Rebels, here, and Obligers, here. If you want to hear when my habits book goes on sale, sign up here.)
Agassi insight #2 tomorrow!